Introduction to Diabetes
Diabetes is categorized as a chronic metabolic disease which is characterized by a high level of sugar or glucose in the blood, and this can lead to serious health complications. Diabetes can classify mainly into two types. They are Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs due to insufficient production of insulin, a pancreatic hormone which regulates the blood glucose level. Usually, this type of diabetes develops during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type which develops in adulthood. This occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar levels effectively.
Causes for Diabetes
Depending on the type of diabetes disease, the causes may differ. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder which leads the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas which responsible for the production of insulin. Without enough level of insulin, the body is unable to control the blood glucose level. Type 2 diabetes is typically associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet which can be described as the factors that are associated with lifestyle changes. There are some less common diabetes types associated with pregnancy and single gene mutation, called gestational diabetes and monogenic diabetes respectively. Gestational pregnancy usually goes away after the baby is born. But there the risk of developing type 2 diabetes for these patients is higher. Monogenic diabetes can be classified into two major types. They are neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes. Neonatal diabetes is diagnosed within the first six months while maturity-onset diabetes is diagnosed before the age of 25 years old. Over time, the high levels of glucose in the blood can damage various organs and systems of the body and lead to various complications. Some of them are cardiovascular diseases, nerve damage, kidney damage, eye problems, foot damage, and skin problems.
Symptoms of Diabetes
The symptoms of diabetes may vary depending on the type and severity of the disease condition. Some common symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, slow healing wounds, tingling or numbness of hands or feet, and unexpected weight loss. People with diabetes experience very thirst, a high blood sugar levels can cause dehydration. Frequent urination will be resulted due to the filtration of excess blood sugar by the kidneys. High blood sugar levels may lead to fatigue and exhaustion, as it can be difficult to use glucose for energy. The lens of the eye can swell and causes blurred vision due to diabetes. High blood glucose levels can impair the body’s ability to heal wounds, which can lead to slow-healing sores or infections. Furthermore, high glucose levels in the blood can damage the nerves in the extremities, leading to tingling or numbness of the hands or feet. Moreover, unexplained weight loss in people with type 1 diabetes is a result of the body’s inability to use glucose for energy. These are some common symptoms associated with patients with diabetes and it is necessary to obtain immediate treatments with proper diagnosis if any patient experiences the above symptoms.
The diabetes treatments are depending on the type and the severity of the disease condition. Generally, the purposes of diabetes treatments are to maintain healthy blood glucose levels and to improve the quality of life by preventing complications. Type 1 diabetes requires insulin therapy to regulate the blood glucose level. Multiple daily injections of insulin or the use of an insulin pump can be used as this insulin therapy. The treatment options available for type 2 diabetes often involve changes to diet and exercise habits as type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity and lifestyle factors. As well as the use of medications such as metformin, sulfonylureas, DPT-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors can be used as therapeutic interventions for type 2 diabetes.
The treatments for different types of diabetes are differing. For instance, most of the time monogenic diabetes may be misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes. A genetic test is required to correctly identify monogenic diabetes as it requires different treatment approaches.
Additionally, diabetes patients may require blood sugar level monitoring from time to time to make adjustments to their treatment planning as needed. Moreover, These patients may require the management of other health conditions that can be associated with diabetes, such as high blood pressure and cholesterol.
The management of diabetes involves a range of activities including lifestyle changes and medical treatment. Eating a healthy diet with low in sugar, and carbohydrates and high in fibre and healthy fats is important to manage blood levels in the body and to prevent complications. Monitoring blood sugar levels regularly using a blood glucose meter in people with diabetes may help to identify the patterns of changing the blood sugar levels in the blood and to make adjustments to the treatment plans as needed. People with diabetes should have regular medical checkups with their healthcare provider to monitor their blood sugar levels and overall health to manage this disease condition effectively.
Depending on the type and severity of diabetes, insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs may be prescribed for diabetes patients to help regulate blood sugar levels. Regular exercise can help to improve insulin sensitivity and to lower blood sugar levels. Further, stress management is also an important fact in managing diabetes as stress can increase blood sugar levels. Thus, effective stress management with the aid of meditation or exercise will be helpful. Additionally, diabetes patients should educate themselves about their disease condition with instructions on proper management of this disease condition may contribute to healthy and fulfilling lives.
The management of diabetes is important to prevent or delay the onset of complications associated with diabetes as well as to reduce the symptoms such as fatigue, thirst and frequent urination. Diabetes management not only leads to physical benefits but also leads to psychological benefits. Because living with diabetes may be stressful. Thus, this effective diabetes management will reduce anxiety and improve overall emotional well-being.